Residential areas called suburbs are built around cities’ borders. Likewise, industrial areas and offices where pushed even farther and are usually built in the middle of nowhere, since those lands are cheaper. The average family’s quality of life improved substantially (not much in these last years) and each family now owns a house and at least one car.
Everyone lives away from work and everyday there’s an exodus of people from home to work and back again. The total costs of commuting are huge and diverse (e.g. time, energy, quality of life, productivity, sustainability).